The "black industry chain" survey behind the power battery billion recovery market
Corresponding to this is the problem of power battery recycling for new energy vehicles. China Merchants Securities believes that in accordance with the life expectancy of power battery 4-6 years, the power battery produced in 2014 began to enter the scrapping period in batches last year. It is estimated that by 2020, China will produce about 240,000 tons of decommissioned lithium-ion batteries, which will be produced in 2022. 530,000 tons of decommissioned lithium-ion batteries.
"The power battery recycling market will cover 10 billion market space within two years." China Merchants Securities pointed out.
To this end, this year, including Sichuan, Hunan and other places have released a pilot program for the recycling of power batteries. On July 30, the two regions also established the Power Battery Recycling Industry Alliance, which is another region that has established industrial alliances following Guangdong, Jiangsu, Gansu and other provinces.
At present, it seems that the road to regularization of power battery recycling is still "resistance and long."
The peak of decommissioning will arrive
In recent years, many people have joined the ranks of new energy vehicles because of the low cost of car purchases and large subsidies.
“I bought a new energy vehicle for 42,000 yuan in May last year. Because it is pure electric, it is not only environmentally friendly, but also more economical. Many people who buy new cars may worry about battery life and endurance, but dealers can guarantee By the end of 6 to 8 years, it is still very cost-effective." Li Fei (a pseudonym) told reporters in the 21st Century Business Herald.
In 2015, the number of new energy vehicles reached 583,200, an increase of 169.48% compared with 2014. In 2016, the number of new energy vehicles in China reached 1.09 million, an increase of 86.9% compared with 2015. In 2017, this data continued to grow, with a holding of 1.53 million units. In 2018, the number of new energy vehicles in China reached 2.61 million.
"Now the peak of scrapping has come. Is there enough capacity to deal with such a large amount of scrapping? I think it is not so optimistic at present. These auto factories including BYD and BAIC are not starting to do it. From the moment of the new energy vehicle, the battery recycling was considered. It may be that the technology of the whole car is very mature, or it has already been on the production line, and the recovery of the battery is thought of. Since the start is slow, the development is relative. Lagging." Dr. Pan Gong, head of the Solid Waste Industry Research Center of the E20 Research Institute, told the 21st Century Business Herald.
Judging from the number, types and distribution of existing decommissioned batteries, the decommissioned batteries are mainly concentrated in cities with strong promotion of new energy vehicles such as Shenzhen, Hefei and Beijing.
However, from the perspective of enterprise recycling, among the currently recovered power storage batteries, the new energy vehicle decommissioned batteries are still relatively small, mainly from the waste power storage batteries produced by R&D test and production.
Strict control "black recycling"
After a large number of decommissioning of power batteries, without proper disposal and maximum value utilization, it not only threatens public safety, but also causes irreversible environmental pollution, and also wastes precious valuable metal resources.
The “Research Report on the Recycling and Utilization of New Energy Vehicles' Power Battery” compiled by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology shows that the cumulative supporting capacity of power batteries in China exceeds 131GWh, and the industrial scale ranks first in the world. In the matching type, lithium iron phosphate and ternary batteries account for about 54%, 40%.
At present, the recycling of power batteries is mainly divided into two cycles of step utilization and disassembly and recovery, and the recycling cycle of the power battery starts from the use of the ladder.
In the future, the use of ladders will mainly be based on base station communication and energy storage applications. From the properties of lithium iron phosphate and ternary batteries, lithium iron phosphate is more suitable for the use of ladders. The price of the battery repurchase is about 30% of the new battery. In 2018, the price of the lithium iron phosphate battery pack is around 1.1-1.2 yuan/Wh. The calculated battery repurchase price is about 0.33-0.36 yuan/Wh. In addition to the price advantage, the decommissioned lithium iron phosphate battery has advantages in terms of safety, environmental protection, cycle life and energy density compared with lead-acid batteries.
Dismantling and recycling refers to the crushing, dismantling and smelting of power batteries that have been completely scrapped, and the recycling of resources such as nickel, cobalt and lithium. Due to the abundance of valuable metals, ternary batteries are usually directly dismantled and recycled. In the ternary material battery, nickel is 12.1%, cobalt is 3%, and the average content of lithium is 1.9%, which is significantly higher than the lithium mine developed and utilized in China.
A marketing manager of GAC New Energy told the 21st Century Business Herald that the market for battery recycling is not small. “There will be more and more recycling companies, and battery costs are getting lower and lower.”
However, we must be alert to the black recycling industry chain. “Informal recycling is extremely harmful. These recycling will be dismantled in a very rude manner, only the most valuable part will be taken away, and the rest will not be costly to deal with. The harm to the environment is enormous. Only formal The company can control its environmental pollution or secondary pollution. Therefore, it is not only a problem of recycling, but also a problem to deal with." Pan Gong said.
Establish a vendor responsibility system?
How to do?
According to Pan Gong, China's power battery recycling, a path is the lead in the production of battery manufacturers, they are also the best understanding of technology. Secondly, the new energy car depot is doing new energy battery recycling.
“After the problems with the batteries of new energy vehicles, battery manufacturing companies usually send people to repair and recycle.” An employee of Beijing New Energy 4S Store introduced.
According to the research report of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 45 companies including Beiqi New Energy and GAC Mitsubishi have set up 3,204 recycling service outlets, mainly in the areas with high holdings of new energy vehicles in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Central China. The power battery is paid for recovery. After the customer sends the used power battery to the designated recycling service store, the recycling service network evaluates the used battery and conducts on-site price recovery.
The user manual also states that the owner of the power battery will hand over the used power battery to other unqualified units or individuals, disassemble, disassemble, and cause environmental pollution or safety accidents, and shall bear corresponding legal liabilities.
From the perspective of overseas models, many countries also generally require manufacturers to be responsible for recycling. Since the recovery of lead-acid batteries and consumer lithium batteries in developed countries such as Europe, the United States and Japan started earlier, a producer responsibility responsibility mechanism for the main responsibility of battery recycling by power battery manufacturers has been formed, and the supporting policy system is relatively complete.
“The new energy vehicle battery scrapping government should supervise and ensure that it flows into the formal channels. As long as this key place is stuck, it will naturally enter the cycle of regular resource recycling, and the problem will be small. Other components, such as cars Large steel frames, these things are actually not so harmful to the environment. The most important core is the battery, which is the real harm." Pan Gong stressed.
Some enterprises that do not meet the requirements may become a huge stone to block the development of the waste power battery recycling industry.
To this end, on July 27, 2018, the Department of Energy Conservation and Comprehensive Utilization of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology publicized the list of enterprises (the first batch) that meet the requirements for the comprehensive utilization of waste energy battery in the new energy vehicle (first batch), to a certain extent. Standardize the recycling industry.
In 2018, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the Interim Measures for the Administration of Recycling and Utilization of New Energy Sources for Automotive Power Batteries, and the Interim Provisions on the Management of Sources of Recycling and Utilization of New Energy Vehicles for Power Battery, Building a Recycling Management Mechanism and Promoting the Establishment of a Recycling System. The requirements for the collection of traceability information are clarified, and the main body of each link is required to fulfill the responsibility for recycling and traceability, and a comprehensive management platform for the national monitoring and power battery recycling and traceability of new energy vehicles is constructed.
At the same time, all regions have accelerated the establishment of regional recycling systems and taken measures to promote recycling. Following the Guangdong Provincial Government, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei government, and the Zhejiang Provincial Government, this year, the Sichuan and Hunan governments also issued the “Pilot Work Plan for the Recycling of New Energy Vehicles in Sichuan Province”, “The Implementation of the Recycling and Utilization of New Energy Vehicles in Hunan Province” The program guides the decommissioning of new energy vehicles in the province to enter the recycling network system.
In addition, on January 10, Shenzhen issued the “Shenzhen 2018 New Energy Vehicle Promotion and Application Financial Support Policy”, which includes three types of subsidy policies. According to the subsidy standard, for enterprises that sell new energy vehicles in Shenzhen, including local production enterprises and foreign-invested enterprises, authorized legal person sales enterprises in Shenzhen, the power battery recycling and treatment funds should be denominated according to the standard of 20 yuan/kWh. If the power battery recovery and treatment funds are accrued according to the requirements, 50% of the amount determined by the audit shall be subsidized to the enterprise, and the subsidy funds shall be specially used for the recovery of the power battery.
“Why are most of the battery recycling industry practitioners, battery manufacturers and new energy vehicle manufacturers? In fact, they are all parties to the producer responsibility system, and you have to deal with them. So they are controlled, It will be better to recycle. In addition to control, subsidies may make everyone willing to recycle, but the subsidy must be unsustainable. At least for enterprises, it must be actively calculated independently of subsidies. Pan Gong said.