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What is the difference between NiMH, NiCd and Lithium batteries?
Time:2022-05-04 14:08:46        Hits:【 】second

(1) In terms of weight

Judging from the voltage of each unit cell, Ni-MH and Ni-Cd batteries are both 1.2V, while Li-ion batteries are 3.6V, and the voltage of Li-ion batteries is 3 times that of Ni-MH and Ni-Cd batteries. Moreover, the weight of the same type of battery is almost the same as that of lithium-ion batteries and nickel-cadmium batteries, while nickel-metal hydride batteries are heavier. However, since the terminal voltage of lithium-ion batteries is 3.6V, under the condition of outputting the same voltage, the number of single batteries can be reduced by 2/3, so that the weight and volume of the formed battery pack are reduced.

(2) Memory effect

NiCd batteries have a memory effect, so regular discharge management is required. This periodic discharge management is passive management in a vague state, even when the charge of the nickel-cadmium battery is inaccurate (every time the nickel-cadmium battery is discharged or discharged after several uses, it is due to the production of the nickel-cadmium battery. Varies by manufacturer and usage). This cumbersome discharge management cannot be prevented when using NiCd batteries. Relatively speaking, lithium-ion batteries have no memory effect, and are very convenient and simple to use. There is no need to consider the residual voltage of the secondary battery. It can be directly charged, and the charging time can be shortened naturally.

The memory effect is a major natural enemy of rechargeable batteries. It is generally believed to be caused by incorrect charging for a long time, and it can cause premature battery aging. The memory effect can make the battery unable to be effectively charged, and the phenomenon that it is full once charged and finished once discharged. The way to prevent the memory effect of the battery is to strictly follow the principle of sufficient light discharge, that is to say, it is best to discharge the remaining power in the battery before charging, and it must be fully charged at one time. Usually nickel-cadmium batteries are prone to memory effect, so pay special attention when charging; Ni-MH batteries have no memory effect in theory, but it is best to follow the principle of sufficient light emission in use, which is why many chargers provide additional discharge functions. . Regarding the battery whose capacity has decreased due to the memory effect, most of the batteries can be repaired by repeating the method of one-time sufficient and one-time discharge.

(3) Self-discharge rate

Nickel-cadmium batteries are 15%/month to 30%/month, nickel-metal hydride batteries are 25%/month to 35%/month, and lithium-ion batteries are 2%/month to 5%/month. Among the above three kinds of batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries have the highest self-discharge rate, while lithium-ion batteries have the smallest self-discharge rate.

(4) Charging method

The charging problem of rechargeable batteries has always been the focus of attention. Correct and good charging methods can ensure the life of the battery. There are various recommended charging methods for rechargeable batteries. Different charging methods have different requirements on the lines of the charger, which naturally affects the production cost of the charger. The relationship between the battery charging time and the charging current is: the charging time can be obtained by dividing the battery capacity by the charging current. Considering the loss during the charging process, the obtained charging time is multiplied by the coefficient of 1.2.

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